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04 A legfontosabb állattörzsek: Újszájúak



·         The first opening becomes to anus
Phylum: Echinodermata
·         Virtually radial, but in fact bilateral symmetry
·         Calcareous platelets and spikes
·         Water vascular system, tube-feet
·         Species: starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber
Phylum: Urochordata
·         Larva: notochord in the tail (rodlike, rigid, cells filled with water)
·         Tubular nervous system
·         Pharyngeal cleft (gill slit) – kopoltyúbél (entodermal) 
·         Adult: sacklike animal
·         Species: tunicate
Phylum: Cephalochordata
·         Notochord can be found in the entire length of the body during the whole life
·         Tubular nervous system
·         Pharyngeal cleft (gill slit) – kopoltyúbél
·         Species: lancelet
Phylum: Vertebrates
·         Cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton:
·         Supports and protects the body and organs
·         Backbone, skull and limbs
·         Bones, skeletal muscles are attached
·         Skin: epidermis, cutis, subcutis
·         Digestive system: upper and lower tract, salivary glands (land animals), liver, pancreas
·         Respiratory system: gills or lungs
·         Circulatory system: closed, heart is the center, red blood (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets)
·         Excretion: kidneys
·         Reproduction: male and female (separate sexes)
·         Regulation: neuroendocrine system
·         Nervous system: brain, spinal cord, nerves
·         Endocrine system: hormones
Class: Fish
Streamlined body: head, trunk, tail
·         Paired: pectoral (attached to the skull), pelvic (attached to the trunk muscles)
·         Unpaired: dorsal, anal, caudal
Skin: slimy, scaly (stratified, non ceratinised epithelial tissue)
Glands: mucus
Lateral line system: detects water currents
Respiration: gills (lamellae), skin-breathing
Digestive system:
·         Predators: rootless teeth
·         No salivary glands
·         Cloaca: excretory, reproductive and digestive system opens here to the environment
Circulatory system:
·         Single circulation
·         Two-chambered heart: atrium, ventricle (slow circulation – poikilothermic /cold-blooded/ animals)
Jawless fish: lampreys (ingolák)
Cartilaginous fish:
·         Cartilagous endoskeleton
·         No swim bladder, no gill cover
·         Asymmetrical caudal fin
·         Internal fertilization
·         Sharks, rays
Bony fish:
·         Bony endoskeleton
·         Opercula covers the gill cavities
·         Caudal fin: symmetrical
·         Swim bladder: gas-filled sac (controls the depth in water
·         Reproduction: external fertilization, spawning
·         Species: herring, sardine, cod - tőkehal, tuna - tonhal, carp - ponty, pike - csuka, catfish - harcsa
Class: Amphibians
Larva: aquatic with gills
Adult: semi-terrestrial with simple lungs
Ancients: lobe-finned fishes
Pentadactyl limbs: pushing legs, jumping legs (frogs), webbed feet
Bony endoskeleton: legs are connected to the backbone (shoulder blade, pelvis), no chest
·         Thin, smooth and moist skin
·         No scales
·         Compound (stratified) epithelium is slightly keratinized
·         Dermis: pigment cells and glands (mucus, toxins)
·         Lung-breathing (10%), primitive saclike lungs (they swallow the air)
·         Skin-breathing (90%)
·         Double circulation: small/pulmonary circuit and systemic/body circuit
·         Three-chambered heart: 2 atria, 1 ventricle
·         Oxigenated and deoxigenated blood is mixing in the ventricle (valve is not perfect)
·         Poikilothermic animals
Digestive system:
·         Predators
·         Rootless teeth
·         Salivary glands
·         Cloaca
·         External fertilization
·         Metamorphosis: aquatic larva (tadpole) and semi-terrestrial adult
Major groups:
Order: Urodela (farkos kétéltűek)
·         Fire salamander – foltos szalamandra
·         Crested newt – tarajos gőte
Order: Anura (farkatlan kétéltűek)
·         Edible frog – kecskebéka
·         Tree frog – zöld levelibéka
·         Green toad – zöld varangy
·         Common toad – barna varangy
·         Goliath frog - góliátbéka
Class: Reptiles
The first real terrestrial vertebrates
Evolution: from early amphibians, under dry and hot climate (permian, 300 billion years ago)
Integument: prevents drying out
·         Impermeable, dry, keratinized skin
·         No glands
·         Keratin scales, keratin plates and sometimes bony plates (turtles)
Quadruped animals (except snakes), pushing legs, claws
·         No skin breathing
·         Developed lungs: inner foldings and cavities (redős-kamrás tüdő)
·         Closed chest cavity, intercostal muscles (rib muscles) – inhalation
Circulatory system:
·         Double circulation
·         Four-chambered heart: 2 atria, 2 ventricles
·         Ventricle separation is not perfect (except in crocodiles) – poichiloterm animals
Excretion: kidneys
·         Mainly predators: sharp, pointed rootless teeth (except turtles)
·         Cloaca
Reproduction: internal fertilization
Oviparous (tojásrakó) animals: eggs with leathery shell
Eggs are incubated by the heat of sun
Ovoviviparous (álelevenszülő) animals: eggs are incubated in the body of the female animal
Main groups and species
Order: Scaly-skinned reptiles (pikkelyes hüllők rendje): lizards and snakes
·         Green lizard – zöld gyík
·         Common lizard – fürge gyík
·         Adder – keresztes vipera
·         Grass snake – vízisikló
·         Aesculapian snake – erdei sikló
Order: Turtles – teknősök rendje
·         Pond terrapin – mocsári teknős
Order: Crocodilians: Nile crocodile
Class: Birds
Ancients: small-bodied reptiles
Two legs
Streamlined body
Front legs were modified to wings: bones are reduced, fused, claws disappeared
Breastbone: large keel (flight muscles are attached)
Rib projections, coracoid bone, wishbone
Walking legs: modified for perching, running, swimming, creeping, catching prey
Foot: fusion of bones (csüd), covered by scales
Integument: keratinized, no sweat glands
·         Feathers: for flight and insulation
·         Feather structure: shaft (gerinc), vane (tollzászló) – barbs and hooks
·         Plumage: down feathers – contour feathers – flight feathers
·         Oil gland - farktőmirigy
Light body: hollow bones, no teeth (beak), air sacs
Digestive system:
·         Different beak types
·         Crop: food is stored and moistened
·         Glandular stomach – mirigyes gyomor
·         Gizzard – zúzógyomor
·         Cloaca
Respiratory system
·         High metabolic rate
·         Double ventillation: tubules and air sacs (5 pairs)
Circulatory system
·         Four-chambered heart
·         Closed double circulation (no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood)
·         Homoiothermic animals (38-43oC)
·         Separate sexes, sexual dimorphism
·         Internal fertilization
·         Hard calcified-shelled eggs
Main species
·         Ostrich
·         Pheasant
·         Cormorant
·         Mallard
·         Buzzard
·         Sparrowhawk
·         Sea eagle
·         White stork
·         Tawny owl
·         Collared dove
·         Woodpecker
·         Swallow
·         Blackbird
·         Great tit
·         House sparrow
·         Raven
·         Crow
Class: Mammals
Ancients: small-bodied reptiles
·         Keratinized
·         Rich in glands: oil gland/sebaceous gland (impregnates, protects the skin and the hair), sweat gland (thermoregulation, excretion), mammary gland (modified sweat gland, milk secretion)
·         Hair: keratinous skin product, evolved from reptilian scales
·         Diaphragm: separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, role in in/exhalation
·         Spongy lungs with alveoli
·         Double circulation, four-chambered heart
·         Red blood cells: nucleus extincts
·         White blood cells: defence
·         Platelets: blood clotting
Digestive system
·         Molars: wrinkled/crincly (herbivores), bulbous (omnivores), crested (carnivores)
·         Digestive juices: saliva (salivary glands), gastric juice (stomach), bile (liver), pancreatic juice (pancreas), intestinal juice (small intestine)
Coordination: developed nervous and endocrine system
·         Inner fertilization
·         Viviparous animals
·         Youngs are fed with milk
·         Egg-laying mammals: oviparous, no nipples – duck-billed platypus
·         Marsupial mammals: young develops in the pouch (hairy skin folding on the mother’s body) – kangaroo, wombat, tasmanian evil, koala
·         Placental mammals: young develops in the womb/uterus, nourishment occurs through the placenta (young is fully developed)
Main orders
Insectivores: pointed teeth
·         Moles
·         Shrews
·         Hedgehogs
Bats: flying mammals, pointed teeth, echolocation
Rodents: self-sharpening incisors
·         Squirrels
·         Rats
·         Mice
·         Beavers
Lagomorphs: hare, rabbit
Cetaceans (whales), Pinnipeds (seals), Sirenians (dugong): adapted for life in water
·         Cat family: wild cat, lynx, lion, tiger, jaguar, panther (leopard), puma
·         Dog family: dog, wolf, fox, jackal, hyena
·         Bear family: polar bear, brown bear, panda
·         Weasel family: weasel, otter, badger
Primates: opposable thumbs, nails, eyes look forward
·         Monkeys: lemur
·         Apes: gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, human
Elephants (Proboscidea): long and muscular snout, incisors modified to tusks
·         Elephant
Odd-toed ungulates: walk on the 2nd-4th or 3rd toes, hooves, single stomach
·         Horse
·         Zebra
·         Rhinoceros
Even-toed ungulates: walk on the 2nd-5th or 3rd-4th toes, paired hooves, can be ruminants
·         Pigs
·         Hippopotamuses
·         Camels
·         Deers
·         Giraffes
·         Antelopes
·         Sheeps
·         Goats
·         Cattle